oats in pakistan

These areas are 1000 to 2300 m above the plains, with cold to extremely cold winters. Oats are mostly fed green, and any surplus is made into hay. intercropping of companion crops, maize thinning and fallowing of land - to help to feed animals. Please enter your email address. Notes: LSD = Least Significant Difference. Reported green fodder and dry matter yields are generally higher in parts of NWFP and Balochistan than in the lowlands and mid-hills. Cvs PD2-LV 65, S-81 and Swan produced maximum forage yield (58.6, 55.0 and 54.6 t ha-1) and gross income (Rs 14 750, 13 800 and 13 720), respectively, when harvested only for fodder at 50 percent flowering stage. Apply 30 kg of Nitrogen in form of (Urea 66 kg) and 8 kg of Phosphorus (in form of SSP@50 kg) per acre. This trait of late maturity in a dual-purpose crop was confirmed by McLeod et al. S-81 in Islamabad, 1991-92. Lost your password? Local seed dealers are the main source of oat seeds for smalland large-scale commercial farmers. It results in distortion and mottling of leaves. Some farmers grow for their own stock (again subdivided into subsistence and com mercial), while others (who may have no livestock) grow fodder as a cash crop. The expanding urban population has provided a lucrative milk market and dairy farming is now better managed. Representative examples of data generated from trials in dairy pockets are given below (data obtained from the NARC report on the National Uniform Fodder Yield Trials 1989-2000). Data are not available, but huge quantities of oats are now regularly made into excellent hay, baled and transported over long distances. In both crops, crude protein content decreased with advancing maturity. Oats is an important Cereal crop as well as fodder crop. P = Probability. Fodder oats were introduced during the early British era, but it was only in the 1970s that 400 cultivars were acquired from Australia, Canada, Europe, New Zealand and USA to form the basis of Pakistan’s oat improvement programme. All the seed of improved fodder oats is used for further increase and subsequent sale to fodder growers of the area. Oats is rich in proteins and fiber. In dry seasons, peri-urban farms cannot meet the forage requirements of city dairies, so forage is transported from irrigated areas hundreds of kilometres away. Land should be properly prepared to form a weed free field. Some of this material still plays an important role across a wide range of ecologies. Fauji Cereals (established in 1954), a fully owned company of Fauji Foundation (The largest national business group) in collaboration with Quaker Poor feed results in poor health and production. Seed treatment should be done properly to manage this disease. Oats harvested at head emergence stage and barley and wheat at full flowering produced maximum green yields. A deep-rooted crop like lucerne can be mixed with shallow rooted ones like oats, rye, barley or a brassica; the annual is usually sown between the rows of perennial fodder. The crop should be harvested at a stage that provides an optimum compromise between forage yield and quality. Broad-leaved cultivars produce a higher forage yield, but narrow-leaved ones are preferred by horses and cattle. The other critical period is May to June, when the summer fodders of maize (Zea mays), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sorghum- Sudan grass hybrids (Sorghum vulgare var. In Pakistan, most crop production is in four major farming systems, reflecting local agro-ecological zones, defined by climatic conditions, dependence on irrigation or rainfall, temperatures, soil fertility and land holding size. Pakistan faces a situation where there is insufficient fodder, in terms of both quantity and quality. Bhatti, Hussain and Mohamamd (1992) evaluated 13 oat cultivars under a two-cut system at Islamabad during 1985-86 and 1986-87 and found that the cultivars PD2-LV 65 and S-81 produced 28.05 percent and 26.24 percent more green forage and 26.30 percent and 21.93 percent more dry matter yield, respectively, in two cuttings compared with the control. It has slow early growth and light green color leaves. It can be cured by proper seed treatment during seed sowing. These areas - south Sindh and parts of Balochistan - have subtropical conditions. Temperatures are similar to the irrigated areas, but depend on rain. Leaf Blotch: Fungus establishes itself inter-cellular, tends to produce conidiophores which emerges through stomata and bears single terminal conidia. The outputs and findings of this successful project, which gave a great impetus to commercial oat growing, is reported by Bhatti and Khan (1996). In the 1950s and 1960s, oats were grown mainly to provide hay for horses, then the main transport animal in rural and urban areas. The introduction of improved cultivars is one of the quickest methods of improving and enhancing yields of all crops. The Fodder Research Institute, Sargodha, is the main institution handling the basic seed production of improved or promising forages. Oats have proved to be an outstanding winter forage throughout Pakistan, particularly for the peri-urban dairies supplying the big cities, and in the high altitude temperate northern regions. Forage fetches reasonable prices in winter. Maximum green fodder and dry matter yields and crude protein contents were recorded when oats were harvested at 50 percent flowering. The green yield of local oat landraces under rainfed conditions is about 20 t ha-1 (Bhatti, Hussein and Mohamamd, 1992), which is insufficient to provide even maintenance for the number of livestock kept. The details are presented in Table 6.6. Cultivar No. Notes: (1) T1 = Cut for fodder 70 days after sowing and then harvested for seed at maturity; T2 = Cut for fodder 85 days after sowing and then harvested for seed at maturity; T3 = Cut for fodder 100 days after sowing and then harvested for seed at maturity; T4 = Cut for fodder 115 days after sowing and then harvested for seed at maturity; T5 = Cut for fodder at 50 percent flowering stage for fodder. Oat+vetch (Figure 6.3) and barley+vetch combinations produced on average 110 and 70 t ha-1 of green material, compared with 100 and 56 t ha-1 pure oat and barley stands, respectively, in the 1400 to 2000 m altitude band (Table 6.3). In rainfed areas, wheat straw and sorghum, maize or millet stover provide the bulk feed; forages and concentrates are fed to lactating animals. It gives average green fodder yield of 188 qtl/acre. Fodder yield and quality is greatly influenced by plant age, crude protein content and in vitro dry matter digestibility, which falls as the forage crop matures; dry matter yield increases with advancing maturity (Dost et al., 1994). PD2-LV 65 harvested 115 days after sowing (Rs 18 380 ha-1). The recent significant impact of new oat cultivars on the availability of livestock feed and therefore on farmer incomes in resource-poor areas of Pakistan has stimulated the belief that even more can and should be done, both to make existing cultivars more widely available through extensive bulking and to introduce new, better-adapted oat cultivars and other improved fodder crop varieties, thus supporting resource-poor regions through continuous on-farm evaluation with the help and cooperation of the national forage research programme, extension services, private seed companies and NGOs. Major crops are mustard, wheat, barley, oats and lentils in winter; maize, sorghum, millet, guar and groundnut in summer. Well drained loamy soil rich in organic matter is suitable for cultivation. Sorghum with maize, and mustard intercropped in wheat, are the major green forages, supplemented by maize thinnings and weeds. Green oats are cut in Gilgit and Chilas when no other green feed is available. In order to assess a suitable sowing date for maximizing forage yields and optimizing time of forage availability, sowing date trials on high fodder yielding oat cv. Oats can provide green fodder after 60-70 days in an emergency to carry stock over the scarcity period, but by 90-100 days after germination, large quantities of fodder is available. Average plant height is 100-120 cm. In winter, green wheat is fed. Although 16-19 percent of the total cropped area in Pakistan is planted to fodder, animals are generally underfed. The results are presented in Table 6.5. The major winter forages are oats, berseem, lucerne, vetch and mustard; summer forage crops are maize, sorghum, sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid, pearl millet, cowpea and guar. TABLE 6.9Average plant height (PH), tillers per plant (TL), leaves per tiller (LV), green fodder yield (GY), dry matter yield (DY), seed yield (SY), crude protein content (CP) and crude fibre (CF) contents of oats cv. Password (2) Data for one year.Source: Hussain et al., 1995. FYM should be added at the time of land preparation. Seed Rate: Seed rate of 25 kg is required for one acre land. Trials evaluating and selecting multicut, and high-fodder-yield cultivars were carried out on farmers’ fields in the Northern Areas during 1996-97. LSD = Least Significant Difference. Swan cut for fodder after 70 and 85 days of sowing and then left for seed produced, respectively, 2.04 and 2.07 t ha-1 seed yield and Rs 11 520 and 11 590 ha-1 gross income. Although the use of oats as a multicut crop is common in Pakistan, relatively limited research data are available to aid the farmer in the selection of the best forage harvest schedule for the dual utilization of oats to attain high forage yield, seed yield and good forage quality.

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